Selasa, 28 Agustus 2007

Program Details of Egg Donation

Egg donation allows couples who want to have children but are finding it difficult to conceive. Typically, a woman's ovaries do not produce enough healthy eggs to become pregnant, she uses donated eggs. Healthy young women in their 20s to donate their eggs to help a couple to conceive or substitute through IVF.

What are the qualities of the egg donor?

Program standards vary, but most of the criteria have been set for legal reasons and to increase the chance of pregnancy. Egg donors must be between 21 years and 35, although most programs do not accept women over 30 years of age. You must be 21 to legally sign a contract and younger than 35 because older women tend to respond more poor to medicines that young women in their 20s.

To be eligible, women must be healthy, have no STD or disease, be non-smokers, have little or no genetic diseases in the family, had no psychological problems, these have no piercing, tattoos or body, we must continue or already obtained a university degree, and must be physically and emotionally able to donate. Many programs or ads also look ethnicity for certain circles, high IQ or standardized test scores, athletic talent, musical talents, and for "attractive" seeks donors.

Most of the criteria laid down is to ensure that both the young woman and her eggs are healthy, which will result in a healthy pregnancy and child. Couples tend to look for young women who look like them or have similar characteristics, which helps the couple feel that the child is usually act like them, as if it was genetically theirs.

Many programs offer more monetary compensation if you have already given birth or donated eggs successfully before. This is the case because donors are more likely to follow egg donation guidelines, have already proven to be fertile, and their positive feelings about donation has already been made. Some programs also offer more compensation for certain races, beauty, high IQ and a special talent.

What does the egg donation process involve?

To apply for a program for egg donation, you must fill out the questionnaire, a long (averaging 30 pages), which requires that general information about yourself and details about you and your family's medical history . You will also be asked for photos of yourself, in most cases, from birth to the present time. Your request will be reviewed. If you are considered acceptable, you will be accepted into the program donated egg. Some programs at this stage in their position you egg donation database until you are selected by a couple. Other programs of your psychological, medical, social disease tests, background checks at this point before you qualify as fit to give.

Then you need to wait to be chosen by a couple. This can take from a few weeks to over a year. Each couple is looking for different criteria so that you have to wait until someone you fit the criteria. Repeat donors are selected sometimes faster than the first time donors.

After being selected, you enter into a legally binding agreement with the couple. According to the center you work with the couple and preferences, your contact with the couple may differ. Most of the centers of anonymity between parents and donors, although some donors or couples prefer to meet.

After signing the contract legal, drugs will begin. Typical medications taken by an egg donors are Lupron, follicle stimulating hormones, and human chorionic gonadotropin. Most drugs must be injected at home by yourself. The injections last about 3-4 weeks from the process. Your clinical let you know what medications you take and give instructions on how to inject yourself with drugs.

Finally, after about 2-4 months, the date and exact time will be set for the recovery of eggs. You will be required to travel in the center of IVF you work with (if you live far travel can be covered) for this procedure. You will be sedated and a vaginal ultrasound probe with a guide needle in your vagina. This needle will enter and exit ovaries loans eggs. This procedure takes about 30 minutes to an hour. You need to rest for about 1-3 hours after extraction, from there, somebody can take you home. It is recommended not to fly home until the next day. After the operation, you can feel cramps or light bleeding for a day or more. You should feel normal within a day or two. Within a few weeks, you should begin menstruation and your body will return to normal.

You can expect to pay anywhere from 72 hours to one week after the process. Monetary compensation ranging from $ 2500 to $ 15000. First time, donors can expect to receive about $ 2500 to $ 5000. Repeat donors may receive more, up to about $ 15,000 (most of which centers agree to be set for compensation and ethical reasons of financial hardship).

Depending on the degree of openness, you may never know if your couple designed using your gift eggs. You can go back to your normal life at this point, or choose to go through the process of egg donation again in the future.

Prosedur In vitro fertilisation (IVF)

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) adalah sebuah proses untuk menghasilkan bayi di luar tubuh manusia. Sel Telur dari wanita dan sperma dari pria ditempatkan bersama-sama dalam piring plastik untuk menghasilkan terjadinya pembuahan. Seteleah terjadi pembuahan, telur yang sudah berubah menjadi embrio akan ditanamkan kembali ke belakang uterus wanita untuk dapat diproses secara alami oleh tubuh agar dapat terjadi kehamilan.

Prosedur Bayi tabung (IVF)

IVF bukanlah suatu prosedur yang mudah dan sederhana, tapi merupakan beberapa langkah prosedur yang dilakukan dalam beberapa minggu, seperti dijelaskan dibawah ini:

Menstimulasi Ovarium
Beberapa macam hormon akan disuntikan untuk menstimulasi ovarium untuk menghasilkan telur lebih dari pada masa subur umumnya. Perkembangan sel telur ini akan dipantau dengan cara tes darah dan dengan ultrasound. Cara ini digunakan untuk meyakinkan bahwa telur-telur yang dihasilkan pada saat yang tepat

Pengumpulan Sel Telur
Ultrasound dimasukkan dalam rahim wanita dan jarum yang sangat halus akan melacak perkembangan telur dalam rahim tersebut. Monitor pada Ultrasound akan menunjukan dimana follicle berada, kemudian jarum halus tersebut akan menindik follicle yang mengandung sel telur dan mengekstraksinya.

Fertilisasi dan Pemindahan Embrio
Dua jam setelah sel telur dikumpulkan, si pria akan mengeluarkan sperma, biasanya dilakukan lewat masturbasi. Dalam proses standar IVF, sel telur akan dicampurkan dengan sperma dalam satu wadah. Sedangkan dalam proses ICSI, satu sel sperma akan langsung diinjeksikan kedalam lapisan luar setiap sel telur yang ada.
Jika sel telur sudah dibuahi oleh sperma, akan menghasilkan sebuah zigot atau embrio muda. Zigot tersebut akan disimpan dalam inkubator selama 1-2 hari sampai membelah menjadi 2 atau 4 sel. Setelah proses pembuahan, 2 atau 3 embrio akan dipindahkan ke dalam uterus mengunakan catheter. Proses ini disebut pemindahan embrio dan cukup menimbulkan rasa sakit serta tidak memerlukan anastetik.
Sedangkan untuk proses Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT), sel telur dan sperma diletakkan langsung dalam tuba fallopi dan membiarkannya melakukan proses yang alami. Prosedur ini menggunakan laparoskop dan anastetik umum, namun dewasa ini cara GIFT sudah jarang digunakan.

Tes kehamilan
Dua minggu setelah proses pemindahan akan dilaksanakan tes darah untuk memastikan apah terjadi proses kehamilan atau tidak

Sabtu, 25 Agustus 2007

Memaksimalkan Kesehatan Masa Sebelum Kehamilan

Beberapa nasehat sederhana yang mudah untuk dilakukan sebelum anda memulai proses bayi tabung anda:
- Diet yang sehat dan teratur
- Berhenti merokok dan pengunaan obat-obatan
- Jangan meminum minuman beralkohol
- Lakukan olahraga ringan: Jalan-jalan sore, jogging
- Jaga berat badan sesuai dengan BMI yang ideal
- Minum multi-vitamin
- Lakukan intercourse 2-3 kali seminggu
- Lakukan pemeriksaan darah, tes hepatitis B & C
- Hitung dan pahami putaran masa subur anda

Memahami masa kesuburan anda akan memaksimalkan kesempatan kehamilan yang lebih besar. Setiap wanita memiliki masa subur yang berbeda-beda tiap bulannya. Kunci untuk memperoleh kehamilan adalah memahami betul perputaran masa subur anda, karena saat masa subur tubuh anda akan melepaskan telur yang siap digunakan untuk proses fertilisasi via intercourse yang akan digunakan untuk proses bayi tabung

Male Infertility Treatments

Some causes of male infertility are sometimes correctable. A varicocele may be surgically repaired to improve fertility. Treatment with antibiotics of a chronic infection can enable a previously infertile man to become fertile. In some situations where substance abuse is a contributing factor, it may be essential for the male to abstain entirely from alcohol and/or other drugs and to join self-help groups in order to do so. Re-evaluation of medications prescribed to treat a chronic illness may produce positive results. A careful study of the man's exposure to occupational hazards such as radiation, lead, or dangerous pesticides may indicate a possible solution through change in employment.

In other cases, administration of various hormones can increase a borderline sperm count or suppress sperm antibodies enough to make conception possible. These hormones include testosterone, thyroid hormone and cortisone. In some situations clomiphene citrate (Clomid) or human menopausal gonadotropins (Pergonal), medications that are used to induce ovulation in infertile women, may also be given to a man whose pituitary deficiency is the cause of his inability to father an offspring. In vitro fertilization, originally used more for female infertility, is being used increasingly for the treatment of male infertility.

What is being described as a revolution in treating infertile men originated in Belgium in 1993, when researchers produced several successful pregnancies by the direct injection of a single sperm cell into a human egg in a Petri dish. The important discovery was that men who had no viable sperm in their semen often had at least a small number in their testes. The problem was that getting the sperm out of the testicles required a very expensive operation and an extended hospital stay.

In 1995, American researchers found a much easier and cheaper way to extract the sperm: by aspirating them through a thin needle in a procedure that can be done in the doctor's office. Even though the needle aspiration is not very expensive, it has to be combined with in vitro fertilization and the direct injection of sperm into eggs. The combined procedures, known as intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI), can cost as much as $15,000, an amount not likely to be covered by insurance.

The extraordinary advantage of this new development is that it has reduced fertilization to getting the sperm's genes into the egg. It doesn't matter whether the sperm can swim vigorously or even if it can penetrate the egg's outer layer. All that matters is that it is alive. Dr. Richard J. Sherins, director of the male infertility program at the Genetics and IVF Institute in Fairfax, Virginia and the developer of the aspiration technique, believes that it should be of the greatest use to the approximately ten million American men who have had vasectomies. This is encouraging news because while the vas may be surgically repaired, this does not always result in the resumption of fertility. And according to the "New York Times" (6/19/95), even though the method is expensive, it has resulted in a diminishing market for sperm donors both in this country and Europe.

By: Michael Russell

Yang Mandul yang Melahirkan

Keajaiban itu bernama Carine, seorang bocah berusia sebelas bulan yang lahir di Kanada. Bocah perempuan ini lahir dari metode pembuahan di laboratorium, ditumbuhkan dari sel telur yang dibekukan lantas dibuahi di tabung laboratorium.

Carine lahir dari seorang ibu yang mengidap sindrom kista di indung telur. Penyakit ini biasanya menyebabkan penderitanya mandul. Di Inggris, satu dari lima perempuan menderita penyakit ini, termasuk Victoria Beckham, istri bintang sepakbola David Beckham.

Ibunda Carine adalah satu dari 20 sukarelawan yang mencoba metode pembuahan baru yang dihasilkan peneliti dari Pusat Reproduksi McGill di Montreal, Kanada. Sel telurnya dimatangkan di laboratorium, dibekukan, lantas dicairkan, lalu dibuahi dalam tabung.

Pematangan sel telur di laboratorium sudah pernah dilakukan sebelumnya dan melahirkan bayi yang sehat. Pembekuan sel telur pun terbilang sebagai prosedur yang sudah mapan. Namun Carine adalah kasus pertama di dunia, terlahir dari penggabungan seluruh prosedur itu.

Kelahiran Carine baru diungkapkan ke publik dalam pertemuan tahunan Masyarakat Reproduksi dan Embriologi Manusia Eropa (ESHRE) di Lyon, Prancis, pada senin lalu. Doktor Hananel Holzer dari McGill mengatakan keberhasilan itu memberi harapan bagi para perempuan mandul akibat kista.

Holzer mengatakan selain kelahiran pertama tersebut, masih ada tiga perempuan lain yang sedang hamil dengan cara yang sama dan siap melahirkan bayinya dalam waktu dekat.

Ibunda Carine dan para sukarelawan lain rata-rata berusia 30an tahun dan sama-sama mengalami penyakit kista di indung telur (polycystic). Para peneliti di McGill mengumpulkan 295 oosit (sel telur yang belum matang) dari indung telur mereka dan mematangkannya dengan bantuan hormon di laboratorium selama lebih dari 48 jam sebelum dibekukan.

Sebanyak 68 persen sel telur berhasil dimatangkan. Sel-sel telur itu lantas dibekukan tak lebih dari sebulan sebelum dicairkan kembali. Ternyata 74 persen (64 embrio) berhasil bertahan hidup setelah dicairkan dan dibuahi dengan teknik injeksi sperma.

Embrio-embrio itu lantas ditransfer ke kandungan para sukarelawan. Para peneliti mentrasfer masing-masing tiga sel telur kepada tiap-tiap pasien. Pada empat pasien, proses ini berhasil dan berujung pada kehamilan, bahkan salah satunya berhasil melahirkan Carine.

Holzer mengatakan, teknik baru itu akan bermanfaat bagi perempuan yang mengidap kanker, seperti kanker payudara. Perempuan seperti ini umumnya akan memilih cara pembuahan in vitro fertilization (IVF) alias bayi tabung. Tindakan kemoterapi yang mereka jalani biasanya akan membuat mereka mandul.

Namun, dalam proses bayi tabung, mereka harus mendapat terapi hormon yang berguna untuk merangsang produksi sel telur di dalam ovarium. Terapi semacam ini justru memperburuk penyakit kanker yang mereka derita.

Stimulasi ovarium secara tradisional itu juga memakan waktu, antara dua hingga tiga pekan. Mereka yang menderita sindrom stimulasi berlebihan (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome), takkan punya waktu untuk menunggu metode tradisional. Sindrom ini dapat berakhir pada kematian.

Itulah sebabnya, menurut Holzer, teknik itu akan membantu mereka menyimpan dan membekukan beberapa sel telur sebelum terlambat. Dan pemberian hormon pun cukup dilakukan di laboratorium, bersamaan dengan proses pematangan sel telur.

Sebelum penemuan itu diumumkan, dunia kedokteran belum mengetahui bahwa sel telur yang belum matang bisa dikumpulkan dari indung telur yang belum terstimulasi. Apalagi bahwa sel telur itu bisa dimatangkan lalu dibekukan, lantas dicairkan, sebelum dibuahi dan dipindahkan ke kandungan seorang perempuan yang kemudian hamil karenanya.

Tapi Holzer memperingatkan, penelitian itu masih pada tahap awal dan belum diujicoba pada pasien kanker. "Untuk metode penyimpanan fertilitas, ini masih tahap awal dan eksperimental," kata Holzer. "Kami perlu menginformasikan kepada pasien tentang tahap awal ini, supaya mereka tak menyimpan harapan yang keliru."

Namun teknik ini diharapkan bisa menggantikan praktek yang selama ini ditawarkan kepada pasien kanker, yakni para dokter secara sederhana akan membekukan keseluruhan jaringan indung telur yang bisa diimplan kemudian. Cara ini menimbulkan kekhawatiran bahwa jaringan yang akan diimplan kembali itu tak bebas dari sel kanker.

Perempuan sehat pun bisa memanfaatkan metode baru ini untuk menyimpan kesuburan mereka pada usia pertengahan tanpa perlu menginjeksi hormon. "Perempuan pada usia pertengahan 30an tahun tanpa pasangan dapat membekukan sel telur mereka dengan cara ini," katanya Holzer.

Joep Geraedts, Ketua ESHRE, mengatakan bila nanti metode itu terbukti pada pasien penderita kanker maka itu juga mungkin bagi semua perempuan penderita kista atau reproduksi buatan. "Karena mereka tidak perlu lagi diganggu dengan hormon," kata Geraedts.

Di samping itu, metode itu juga menghemat biaya. Pasalnya perawatan dengan obat-obatan hormon terlalu mahal.

Doktor Allan Pacey, ahli andrologi dari Universitas Sheffield di Inggris, mengatakan keberhasilan para peneliti dari Kanada adalah langkah maju yang signifikan. "Bandingkan dengan lelaki yang dengan mudah menyimpan spermanya sebelum perawatan kanker, perempuan dulu hanya memiliki sedikit pilihan dan kesannya sungguh tidak adil," katanya.

Menurut Pacey, kini yang mesti dilakukan lebih lanjut adalah memastikan bahwa teknik itu aman dan bayi yang lahir pun sehat. "Bila ini sudah dicapai, maka metode ini menjadi amat penting," ucapnya.

Professor Robin Lovell-Badge dari Institut Nasional Riset Kedokteran Dewan Riset Kedokteran mengatakan seluruh langkah dalam metode itu pernah dilakukan sebelumnya. "Namun ini kali pertama semuanya dilakukan bersamaan dan sukses."

Adapun Doktor Laurence Shaw, juru bicara Masyarakat Fertilitas Inggris mengatakan, kehamilan dan kelahiran itu adalah langkah yang mengagumkan. Namun dia mengingatkan bahwa angka kehamilan dari para sukarelawan masih terbilang rendah dan dibutuhkan sel telur dalam jumlah yang besar.

Sumber: TempoInteraktif

Selasa, 21 Agustus 2007

Testing Infertility for Woman

Measuring hormone levels not linked to blood or urine may also yield information about infertility. For example, certain conditions which are associated with abnormally high male hormones such as testosterone or cortisonelike hormones can cause infertility. Also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are two messenger hormones that play a vital role in the delicate process of ovulation. If these conditions are slightly reduced or introducing large amounts do not fluctuate or appropriate in the month, can lead to infertility. The hormone prolactin (which plays an important role in the production of milk) may be abnormally high, and be the cause of infertility. The treatment of this high level of hormone drugs Bromocryptine in many cases, the cure infertility.

A hysterosalpingogram is a test used for the study of the uterus and fallopian tubes. It can be done in a hospital or in the office of a radiologist. A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the cervix is apprehended with a tenaculum. A breakthrough dye injection is then attached to the cervix, the stain is slowly injected into the uterus and X-rays are taken. Most women feel the injection of dye to be about as uncomfortable as moderate cramps. Radiographs showed domestic routes of the uterus and the tubes of dye fills. If there is an anomaly in the shape or size of the uterus or a blockage in the fallopian tubes, which may appear on X-rays.

This test also gives valuable information to a DES exposed to a woman before pregnancy. The degree of abnormality on the shape of the uterus is to predict the chances of premature labor during pregnancy and will help determine how closely such as the woman must be followed during pregnancy.

A trial postcoital (PC test) is a pain, simple test, which often can yield important information in the evaluation of infertile couples. This test is performed at the time of ovulation. You must come to the doctor in a number of hours after intercourse. A review is made speculum and a small sample of cervical mucus and vaginal secretions were taken and examined miscroscopically. This review will show whether cervical mucus is normal and if the sperm are active and alive. If sperm are alive and active, it is presumptive evidence that sperm antibodies are not a problem.

Laparoscsopy is often the last step of an infertility workup. This is done in a hospital, mostly with general anesthesia, although local anesthetic can be used. A small incision is made just below the navel and a long needle is inserted into the abdominal cavity. The abdominal cavity is filled with carbon dioxide. Called laparoscope, a long, narrow, lighted tube is inserted into the abdominal cavity to allow visualization of the pelvic organs. Dye is injected into the uterus. The doctor can look through the laparaoscope and see if the dye spreads the ends of the fallopian tubes, thus determining whether the tubes are open or blocked. In addition, laparoscopy can diagnose endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, and previous pelvic infections.

Sabtu, 18 Agustus 2007

Get Your Treatments Now

If you have done any research at all then you may know that multiple births are on the rise and it is said that infertility treatments are the cause. This was never heard of years ago. When multiple births occur such as sextuplets, there are some times problems in the mothers having problems with heart failure. There are also risks to the newborns when there are problems at birth. The newborns may weigh only several ounces instead of pounds and causes stress to them also. When the births are multiple yet successful the couples are elated and they babies are given a wonderful home.

Treatments Available

There are many options in infertility treatments. There are also many steps that can contribute to stress when looking for the right infertility treatment for you. Some of the basics to be aware of is to know some of the more basic infertility treatments available. After both partners being tested for fertility there are other steps you can take to have that precious bundle of joy.

* Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) using a natural cycle and your partner providing you with a sperm sample when you ovulate.

* Fertility Drugs

* Artificial Insemination with the use of a sperm donor

* Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Eggs are removed, fertilized then returned to the uterus.

* IVF- In Vitro Fertilization.

This can be done with an egg donor and/or sperm donor. You can also have a surrogate mother carry the baby for you. Although this is not widely used, it has been proven to work for those who cannot have a child. You have to find the right person that you truly trust to carry your child for you.

Thinks To Think About

This is a very precious part of life and needs to be research thoroughly then rechecked. The miracle of life with the right infertility treatment can be a full success and allow couples who would not otherwise be able to have a child. People who cannot have children but desperately want children are very passionate about finding the right treatment, procedure and people the help them achieve what they consider to be a dream. It is not to be taken lightly in any means and a baby is a precious little life that needs to be protected once the process starts.

All steps need to be followed and details need to be addressed and questions need to be answered fully before starting the process of having a baby.

By Wade Robins

Jumat, 17 Agustus 2007

Fatwa Majelis Ulama Indonesia tentang bayi tabung/inseminasi buatan.

Dewan Pimpinan Majelis Ulama Indonesia

Memfatwakan :

1. Bayi tabung dengan sperma dan ovum dari pasangan suami isteri yang sah hukumnya mubah (boleh), sebab hak ini termasuk ikhtiar berdasarkan kaidah-kaidah agama.

2. Bayi tabung dari pasangan suami-isteri dengan titipan rahim isteri yang lain (misalnya dari isteri kedua dititipkan pada isteri pertama) hukumnya haram berdasarkan kaidah Sadd az-zari'ah, sebab hal ini akan menimbulkan masalah yang rumit dalam kaitannya dengan masalah warisan (khususnya antara anak yang dilahirkan dengan ibu yang mempunyai ovum dan ibu yang mengandung kemudian melahirkannya, dan sebaliknya).

3. Bayi tabung dari sperma yang dibekukan dari suami yang telah meninggal dunia hukumnya haram berdasarkan kaidah Sadd a z-zari'ah, sebab hal ini akan menimbulkan masalah yang pelik, baik dalam kaitannya dengan penentuan nasab maupun dalam kaitannya dengan hal kewarisan.

4. Bayi tabung yang sperma dan ovumnya diambil dari selain pasangan suami isteri yang sah hukumnya haram, karena itu statusnya sama dengan hubungan kelamin antar lawan jenis di luar pernikahan yang sah (zina), dan berdasarkan kaidah Sadd az-zari'ah, yaitu untuk menghindarkan terjadinya perbuatan zina sesungguhnya.

Jakarta, 13 Juni 1979

Jumat, 10 Agustus 2007

Kisah Pasutri Batam yang Sukses Ikut Bayi Tabung di Malaysia

Beberapa pasangan suami-istri (pasutri) di Batam yang ingin punya anak melalui program bayi tabung atau teknik in vitro fertilization lebih suka pergi ke Mahkota Medical Centre di Melaka, Malaysia. Mereka pun berhasil dan sebagian besar mendapatkan bayi kembar. Mengapa mereka memilih Malaysia?

Hari sabtu, sekitar pukul 10.30, RS Harapan Bunda (RSHB) Batam punya gawe. Bertempat di lantai lima rumah sakit itu, beberapa pasutri datang sambil menggendong bayinya. Mereka adalah peserta program bayi tabung yang sukses ditangani Mahkota Medical Centre (MMC), Melaka, Malaysia.

Beberapa pasutri dengan bayi-bayinya itu langsung disambut dokter dan petugas medis dari MMC yang hari itu berada di RSHB untuk mempresentasikan program bayi tabung.

RSHB dan MMC memang akan menjalin kerja sama untuk program bayi tabung dengan teknik in vitro fertilization. Para pasutri yang diundang hari itu adalah warga Batam yang lebih dahulu berhasil menjalani program bayi tabung. Mereka sengaja diundang ke rumah sakit yang terletak di kawasan bisnis Nagoya, Batam, itu untuk berbagi cerita seputar program yang dijalani.

Di antara mereka adalah pasangan Dodi, 37, dan Magdalena, 36. Pasutri yang tinggal di kawasan Eden Park, Batam Centre, itu datang dengan menggendong dua balita perempuan kembar. "Ya, ini kembar," kata Lena –panggilan akrab Magdalena– dengan senyum bahagia kepada Batam Pos (Grup Jawa Pos).

Dia lantas menyebut nama dua putri kembarnya. Yang lebih tua Andrea Safina Kahla digendong Lena, dan adiknya Audrey Zafira Khansa digendong ayahnya. Kahla tampak lebih agresif. Sedangkan adiknya, Khansa, lebih tenang.

Lena yang hari itu mengenakan baju merah dan berjilbab menceritakan, kedua anak perempuannya tersebut adalah hasil program bayi tabung yang diikuti di pusat bayi tabung MMC. ”Sebelumnya, kami berumah tangga selama enam tahun,” katanya.

Bayi kembar itu lahir pada 8 Oktober 2005. ’’Tanggal 8 nanti (Juli), usianya sembilan bulan,’’ ujar Lena.

Mengapa memilih mengikuti program bayi tabung hingga ke MMC di Melaka? ”Kami enam tahun tak dikaruniai momongan sejak menikah 1999. Padahal, menurut dokter, tidak ada yang salah pada saya dan suami saya,” tuturnya.

’’Selama enam tahun itu, kami sudah berobat ke sana kemari. Ikut program di Jakarta, berobat tradisional, berobat ke dokter kandungan, tapi enggak dapat-dapat,’’ katanya sambil menggoyang-goyang Kahla yang berada dalam gendongannya.

Dari bertanya ke beberapa teman, akhirnya Lena dan suaminya mendapatkan informasi tentang program bayi tabung di MMC Melaka, Malaysia. ’’Desember 2004, kami mencoba ke Melaka dan ikut program bayi tabung,’’ kisahnya.

Setelah melalui pemeriksaan kondisi, 10 Januari 2005, dokter di MMC menanam embrio di rahim Lena. Ketika itu Lena ditangani dr S. Selva, spesialis kandungan dan kebidanan di MMC. Upaya ini membuahkan hasil. Hanya dua pekan setelah penanaman embrio, Lena hamil.

”Dokter minta setelah sepuluh hari supaya tes. Saya cek dengan alat cek kehamilan biasa. Saya bersama suami melakukan tesnya. Ternyata, saya hamil, hasilnya positif. Rasanya senang sekali,” katanya sambil tersenyum. ”Kami waktu itu langsung sujud syukur sambil menangis haru,” lanjutnya.

Saat itu sebenarnya Lena berharap dikaruniai satu anak saja. Tapi, ternyata mereka diberi dua momongan sekaligus. Kahla dan Khansa pun lahir. ”Rumah pun semakin ramai,” ucapnya.

Ketika ditanya soal biaya, Lena menyebut angka sekitar 12 ribu ringgit Malaysia (sekitar Rp 30 juta, dengan kurs 1 ringgit = Rp 2.500). ”Itu belum termasuk biaya perjalanan PP dari Batam ke Melaka.

Lena mengatakan, biaya untuk bayi tabung di MMC bergantung proses. Semakin sulit prosesnya, semakin mahal biayanya. Paling mahal 15 ribu ringgit (sekitar Rp 37,5 juta).

Perjalanan ke Melaka bisa ditempuh dengan kapal feri dari Batam ke Johor Baru dulu. Ini butuh waktu sekitar 1 jam 45 menit. Dari Johor Baru ke Melaka naik bus, kurang lebih 4 jam. ”Bagi kami memang lebih praktis dan murah ke Melaka daripada ke Jakarta. Karena itu, jika kerja sama antara RSHB dan MMC terealisasi, bayi tabung bisa ditangani di sini (Batam),” katanya.

Pasutri asal Batam yang juga berhasil menjalani program bayi tabung atau in vitro fertilization di MMC adalah Mujianto, 38, dan Jenny, 36. Keluarga yang tinggal di kawasan Dutamas, Batam Centre ini sebenarnya tidak punya rencana memperoleh momongan melalui program bayi tabung. ”Saya tidak ada rencana. Tadinya cuma mengantar Mama berobat ke MMC. Tapi, saya juga ikut cek. Dari hasil USG, dokter kandungan merekomendasikan agar kami ikut program bayi tabung. Katanya ini satu-satunya jalan yang harus dilakukan (untuk dapat hamil),” ungkap wanita yang bekerja di Asuransi AIA ini.

Selama enam tahun pernikahannya dengan Mujianto yang menjabat sebagai home loan manager di BII, Jenny tidak pernah mempersoalkan belum hadirnya buah hati dalam keluarganya. Meski demikian, Jenny juga tidak habis-habisnya berusaha secara medis.

”Saya berusaha secara medis, tidak pernah ke dukun. Saya percaya pada Tuhan saja. Secara medis, mulai terapi hingga operasi. Waktu itu katanya ada penyumbatan di rahim saya. Saya bahkan berkali-kali ditiup,” ceritanya.

Rupanya, jodoh pasutri Mujianto dan Jenny ini ada di MMC. Awal 2002, pasangan Jenny-Mujianto memulai program bayi tabung (IVF). Jenny-Mujianto merupakan pasangan pertama dari Batam yang mengikuti program bayi tabung di MMC. Hasilnya, sebulan sejak embrio ditanamkan, Jenny pun hamil.

”Saya bersama suami tes sendiri. Benar-benar heboh waktu tahu saya hamil. Ini anugerah terbesar, bisa melihat keajaiban yang diberikan Tuhan. Ini (anak) kan impian setiap orang,” ucap Jenny dengan raut wajah berbinar.

Sepuluh bulan kemudian, penantian Jenny dan Mujianto pun berakhir. Dua bayi laki-laki lahir pada 30 November 2002. Bayi kembar itu akhirnya diberi nama Jovan Theo Anthony dan Jonas Theo Anthony. Saat ini keduanya sudah berusia 3,5 tahun. ”Mereka kompak, mau apa-apa kompak. Tapi, sifatnya berbeda,” ungkap Jenny.

Selain usaha yang cukup panjang, keluarga yang mengikuti program bayi tabung dengan teknik in vitro fertilization ini harus merogoh kocek lebih dalam. Berapa biaya yang harus dikeluarkan? Vincent Wan, marketing director MMC membeberkan, untuk bayi tabung biayanya rata-rata 12 ribu ringgit Malaysia atau sekitar Rp 30 juta.

Kamis, 09 Agustus 2007

Cost of Vasectomy Reversal

Vasectomy reversal, the microsurgical procedure that works to restore fertility, is affordable, even though the price may vary according to the procedure employed and from doctor to doctor and state to state! Moreover, unlike vasectomy, a vasectomy reversal procedure may or may not be covered under medical insurance. There do exist health centres across America that willingly help with vasectomy reversals at low costs. Rather than saving on dollars, it would be best to approach a vasectomy reversal expert with relevant experience expertise and a high success rate.

The cost of Vasectomy reversal is very less in comparison to its alternatives such as invitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytomplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A single cycle of IVF may cost anywhere from $8000 to $15000, which brings the total cost of achieving a pregnancy up to an astounding $75.000. In stark comparison a pregnancy producing vasectomy reversal would cost a maximum of $25000. Thus, a reversal, considered “more natural” is inexpensive and potentially more effective!

Usually, a successful vasectomy reversal would cost you within the range of $4000 to $20,000. The average in USA has been found to be $10,000, whereas it is half of that in Canada. When agreeing to pay a certain amount to your vasectomy reversal doctor, it would be right to ensure, what exactly are you paying for? Ask all the right questions and make sure you get satisfactory answers. Make certain whether what is quoted is an all-inclusive price or charges for the surgery alone?

There would generally be three charges in your bill, which include the services of the surgeon based upon time consumed and complexity of the procedure, use of anaesthesia and post-operative care and medications.

Surgery: - this would be the remuneration that goes to the surgeon for carrying out the complicated procedure of vasectomy reversal to renew fertility. A vasectomy reversal expert may charge a fee from $2500 to $10,000.

Anaesthesia: - Secondly, the anaesthetist has to be paid for administration of the anaesthesia, general or regional, used during surgery. This may cost anywhere from $2500 to $5000.

Hospital Fee: - this fee would include the costs of your stay and medical tests at the hospital as long as you are admitted there. This would add another $2500 to 45000 to your total vasectomy reversal cost.

However, half of the above costs may be avoided. There are several doctors who provide vasectomy reversal services for around $5000 all-inclusive, using a local anaesthesia and performing the operation in the office itself! The patient may return home the very same evening and return after five days for requisite tests. In fact, this is the course most couples prefer due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.

There are four payment options that may be looked at to defray your Vasectomy reversal check. These include insurance, cash, credit cards, and medical financing companies. Very few insurance companies, if any, cover vasectomy reversals. However, it is always a good idea to check with your health plan or health insurance company for the same. Credit cards such as Visa or MasterCard may be used, while bearing in mind that you shall incur an interest or be charged a service fee by the credit card company. You may also approach a finance company to pay on your behalf. The defrayment guidelines and interest on this mode of payment may exceed the costs of using a credit card. The best option of course is to pay off the entire amount in cash. You may start a medical fund at home, incorporating it within your monthly budget and putting away cash to be used for similar medical concerns.

Thus, a vasectomy reversal is not inexpensive, but money hardly comes into the picture when the happiness of your family is at stake! Explore all payment options; compare different vasectomy reversal doctors and potential costs to make a decision. Whatever it costs, it’s sure to fill your life with unprecedented joy and happiness!

By Inder Walia

Selasa, 07 Agustus 2007

Introduction of IVF

In-vitro fertilization or IVF is a technological advances in the medical field in response to the alarming rate of infertility in developed countries. The concept was launched by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards, a physiologist at Cambridge in the late 1960's and a decade later, the first IVF baby was delivered in the UK.

IVF was invented mainly to help women who suffer from infertility due to blocked fallopian tubes or uterine sick, but over time, the procedure has been extended to cover cases such as endometriosis, cervical mucus hostile and a host of other infertility problems. It is even now applied in cases where the husband or male partner suffers from a low sperm count, but the results with them have not been particularly impressive.

The process of in vitro fertilization, for the most part, involves the use of a laparoscope, a telescope, which can be inserted into the abdomen of women under anesthetic conditions, to remove the eggs from the ovary in women of a period just before the time when it would naturally be released (Ovulé). Harvesting egg is then mixed with washed and diluted male sperm in a glass dish. If fertilization occurs between the egg and sperm, the resulting embryo is allowed to develop in the laboratory, usually for two to three days before the embryo is then implanted or reintegrated into the uterine cavity the woman with a kind of plastic tube.

Like any other man the procedure, the IVF has its own share of limitations and adverse effects. The success rate of the procedure and the risk of suffering an ectopic pregnancy, a pregnancy that implants and develops outside the uterus and can be found almost always broke with tube to the uterus, are two of these issues. Moreover, with IVF, pregnancy does not always guarantee the birth. Fake layers and ectopic pregnancy tend to be higher with this procedure compared to the general population. Losing the pregnancy of an IVF procedure is fairly common, but there is no overall estimate, while the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy from in vitro fertilization is estimated at 5-10% of all IVF pregnancies.

Another problem with in vitro fertilization is the success rate. The success for IVF procedures vary from one place to another, although no figure is considered high everywhere. For every two that the use of IVF and obtain a happy outcome, there are many couples who find their infertility intractable problem. This notwithstanding, the technological basis of IVF is improving day by day, that the facts are becoming clearer about IVF, which leads to better results with attempts at IVF, the figures quoted in most major IVF centers are, in this order: eight to ten per cent chance of pregnancy if only one embryo is implanted in the uterus of women, twenty percent chance if two embryos are implanted and thirty percent chance of being pregnant three embryos implanted. For medical reasons, the number of embryos implanted rarely exceeds three or four. However, it is imperative to reiterate here that pregnancy, as under normal conditions, does not always guarantee the birth.

In-vitro fertilization was a major breakthrough in the treatment of infertility in the past two decades. The procedure requires sophisticated technological equipment and a high level of skill on the part of medical operators. Despite the fact that doctors and others in the medical field can not make promises or guarantees on IVF again, it is clear that the procedure has put the joy on the faces of many couples and still holds hope for those awaiting her.

Sabtu, 04 Agustus 2007

The Must Know Things about Fertility Treatments

A fertility treatment is used when a man and a woman is unable to conceive a child naturally. The fertility treatment is designed to increase their chances of pregnancy. There are many fertility treatments. A specialist tested both individuals to determine the reasons behind infertility, and then the treatment options available are reviewed. Fertility treatments are not always effective and they are often very expensive. Most insurance plans do not cover fertility treatments.

Ovulation induction involves women taking fertility drugs to increase her chances of getting pregnant. These drugs often come with health risks and side effects, but they can help regulate the menstrual cycle and increase the probability of pregnancy.

Artificial insemination is the process of injecting sperm of men in the female. This is often associated with fertility drugs and methods to help men who produce more sperm are stronger. Assisted Reproductive Technology, known as ART, are more complicated fertility treatments. This involves removing eggs from a woman, fertilizing with sperm from the man, and placing it in his body before it is known whether the design has taken place.

Invitro Fertilization is similar, but it involves removing eggs from a woman, fertilizing with sperm from the man, and ensure that the design took place. Then, the embryos were placed in the uterus of the woman. A side effect of this method is the possibility of multiple embryos being formed at the same time, which leads to no less than seven babies born at the same time.

The process of fertility treatments can be very easy for some couples, such as increasing the sperm of man. Other couples struggling for years with fertility problems because of the drop off for not finding an effective treatment and side effects. In addition to the financial costs, the salaries of the fertility of couples affected physically and emotionally.

Sejarah Bayi Tabung

Metode bayi tabung yang dipelopori sejumlah dokter Inggris ini untuk pertama kali berhasil menghadirkan bayi perempuan bernama Louise Brown pada tahun 1978. Sebelum ditemukannya teknik bayi tabung, untuk menolong pasutri tak subur digunakan teknik inseminasi buatan, yakni dengan cara penyemprotan sejumlah cairan semen suami ke dalam rahim dengan bantuan alat suntik. Dengan cara ini diharapkan sperma lebih mudah bertemu dengan sel telur. Sayang, tingkat keberhasilannya hanya 15%.

Pada teknik bayi tabung atau in vitro fertilization yang melahirkan Louis Brown, pertama-tama dilakukan perangsangan indung telur sang istri dengan hormon khusus untuk menumbuhkan lebih dari satu sel telur. Perangsangan berlangsung 5 - 6 minggu sampai sel telur dianggap cukup matang dan sudah saatnya diambil. Selanjutnya, folikel atau gelembung sel telur diambil tanpa operasi, melainkan dengan tuntunan alat ultrasonografi transvaginal (melalui vagina).
Sementara semua sel telur yang berhasil diangkat dieramkan dalam inkubator, air mani suami dikeluarkan dengan cara masturbasi, dibersihkan, kemudian diambil sekitar 50.000 - 100.000 sel sperma. Sperma itu ditebarkan di sekitar sel telur dalam sebuah wadah khusus di dalam laboratorium. Sel telur yang terbuahi normal, ditandai dengan adanya dua sel inti, segera membelah menjadi embrio. Sampai dengan hari ketiga, maksimal empat embrio yang sudah berkembang ditanamkan ke rahim istri. Dua minggu kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan hormon Beta-HCG dan urine untuk meyakinkan bahwa kehamilan memang terjadi.

Sejak kelahiran Louise Brown, teknik bayi tabung atau In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) semakin populer saja di dunia. Di Indonesia, teknik bayi tabung (IVF) ini pertama kali diterapkan di Rumah Sakit Anak-Ibu (RSAB) Harapan Kita, Jakarta, pada 1987. Teknik bayi tabung yang kini disebut IVF konvensional itu berhasil melahirkan bayi tabung pertama, Nugroho Karyanto, pada 2 Mei 1988. Setelah itu lahir sekitar 300 "adik" Nugroho, di antaranya dua kelahiran kembar empat.

Sukses besar teknik bayi tabung (IVF) konvensional ternyata masih belum memuaskan dunia kedokteran, apalagi kalau mutu dan jumlah sperma yang hendak digunakan kurang. Maka dikembangkanlah teknik lain seperti PZD (Partial Zona Dessection) dan SUZI (Subzonal Sperm Intersection). Pada teknik PZD, sperma disemprotkan ke sel telur setelah dinding sel telur dibuat celah untuk mempermudah kontak sperma dengan sel telur. Sedangkan pada SUZI sperma disuntikkan langsung ke dalam sel telur. Namun, teknik pembuahan mikromanipulasi di luar tubuh ini pun masih dianggap kurang memuaskan hasilnya.

Sekitar lima tahun lalu Belgia membuat gebrakan lain pada teknik bayi tabung yang disebut ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection). Teknik canggih ini ternyata sangat tepat diterapkan pada kasus mutu dan jumlah sperma yang minim. Kalau pada IVF konvensional diperlukan 50.000 - 100.000 sperma untuk membuahi sel telur, pada ICSI hanya dibutuhkan satu sperma dengan kualitas nomor wahid. Melalui pipet khusus, sperma disuntikkan ke dalam satu sel telur yang juga dinilai bagus. Langkah selanjutnya mengikuti cara IVF konvensional. Pada teknik ini jumlah embrio yang ditanamkan cuma 1 - 3 embrio. Setelah embrio berhasil ditanamkan dalam rahim, si calon ibu tinggal di rumah sakit selama satu malam.

Di Indonesia, menurut dr. Subyanto DSOG dan dr. Muchsin Jaffar DSPK, tim unit infertilitas MELATI-RSAB Harapan Kita, ICSI sudah diterapkan sejak 1995 dan berhasil melahirkan anak yang pertama pada Mei 1996. Dengan teknik ini keberhasilan bayi tabung meningkat menjadi 30 - 40%, terutama pada pasangan usia subur.

Berdasarkan pengalaman, menurut dr. Muchsin, peluang terjadinya embrio pada teknologi bayi tabung sekitar 90%, di antaranya 30 - 40% berhasil hamil. Namun, dari jumlah itu, 20 - 25% mengalami keguguran. Sedangkan wanita usia 40-an yang berhasil melahirkan dengan teknik in vitro hanya 6%. Karena rendahnya tingkat keberhasilan dan mahalnya biaya yang harus dikeluarkan pasien, teknik ini tidak dianjurkan untuk wanita berusia 40-an.

Pasangan yang masuk program MELATI tidak harus mengikuti program IVF. Teknik ini hanya ditawarkan kalau setelah diusahakan dengan cara lain, tidak berhasil. Sebelum mengikuti program ini pun pasutri diminta mengikuti ceramah dan menerima penjelasan semua prosedurnya agar diikuti dengan mantap.

Biaya mengikuti program bayi tabung (IVF) ini memang tidak murah. Pada akhir 1980-an biayanya sekitar Rp 5 juta. Kini, berkisar antara Rp 13,5 juta - Rp 18 juta. Harga obat suntik perangsang indung telur saja sudah naik hampir empat kali lipat. Padahal, suntikan yang dibutuhkan selama dua minggu mencapai 45 ampul.

Selain RSAB Harapan Kita, Jakarta, teknik bayi tabung (IVF) juga sudah diterapkan di FKUI-RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo (Jakarta), Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga (Surabaya), dan Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada dan RS Dr. Sardjito (Yogyakarta).